The Spectrum of Exchange 

On page 72 of Richard Sennett’s book *Together: the rituals, pleasures, and politics of cooperation,* he outlines five different ways social animals engage:

1. Altruistic exchange *(entails self-sacrifice)*
2. Win-win exchange *(both parties benefit)*
3. Differentiating exchange *(partners become aware of their differences)*
4. Zero-sum exchange *(one party prevails at the expense of another)*
5. Winner-takes-all exchange *(one party wipes out the other)*

Sennett explains:

> In animal terms, this spectrum runs from the worker ant which offers up its body as food for other ants, to the wolf whose exchanges with sheep are invariably lethal; in human terms, the spectrum runs from Joan of Arc to genocide.