Problem-based, cooperative work is best expressed organizationally through emergent, responsive communities. The mainstream business approach is still predictive grouping and an ex ante organizational structure. It is typically a process organization designed and controlled by the expert/manager. This is based on the presuppositions that we know (1) all the linkages that are needed beforehand, and (2) what the right sequential order in acting is. Neither of these beliefs is correct any more.

Esko Kilpi